Geguti fortress is situated on the bank of the river Rioni, at a distance of 236 km from Tbilisi. Several construction strata can be observed in the architecture complex, the oldest, so-called- "Hunting house" dating back to the VIII- IX centuries. The dimensions of the castle prove that the edifice was one of the most magnificent buildings of the age. According to chronicles Geguti castle was a royal residence and audience hall. The edifice adjacent to the western wall of the hall and the castle church belong to the XIII- XIV century. Nowadays the ruins of Geguti castle are spread over the 2000 meters of space.
Tmogvi fortress is situated in Aspindza region, at a distance of 262 km from Tbilisi. The fortress is erected on steep cliff on the bank of the Mtkvari river at a height of 150 meters from the level of the river. In XI- XII centuries the fortress used to be a well-developed city-fortress. The constructions have skillfully utilized all advantages of the contrasting relief. Vertical tunnel leads to the banks of the Mtkvari river, via which the citadel was supplied with water. During XI-XIV centuries as a result of earthquakes Tmogvi was seriously devastated and hasn't been reconstructed since then.
Gori fortress is situated in Gori, at a distance of 86 km form Tbilisi. The fortress is situated in the centre of the town, of a rocky mountain. The western part of the fortress was spread towards the junction of the rivers Majuda and Liakhvi. The ruins on the northern flake of the mount and archeological excavations prove, that in the last centuries of the I millennium B.C. this site was occupied a stronghold, encircled by settlement. Major part of the fortress superstructure dates back to the Developed Feudal Epoch - middle XVII century.
The town of Samshvilde, the biggest fortress-city in the province of Kvemo Kartli, was one of the oldest and densely populated Georgian towns in the Algeti region surrounded by a thick fortress wall. It has been almost completely destroyed by now. Ruins of an acropolis as well as three churches and the remains of a palace are found within the bounds of the city. The city life lasted till the 15th century, though the fortress functioned till the end of the 18th century. The remains of some of the important architectural monuments can be still found and rescued on its territory.
The Birtvisi medieval fortress is located about 60 km South-West of Tbilisi, on the left bank of the river Algeti; surrounded by rocky hills, deep canyons and impressive scenery, the fortress were built by local Lord, when he ordered to build an isolated hidden city which later became one of the most protected fortress- cities in Eastern Georgian Kingdom. For centuries the Birtvisi defense system was in-conquerable, only at the end of 14th century this territory was taken by Tamerlane.
Rabati fortress is situated in the center of Akhaltsikhe, at a distance of 207 km from Tbilisi on the left bank of the river Potskhovi. The old part of the town so-called Rabati is situated on the rocky inn. Ensemble comprises: Sargis Jakeli castle of XIV c., Fortress Church (late Middle Ages), Palace XVIII century and the Church of Saint Marine (1865) with in built relief works.
The main citadel of the city - "Deda-Tsikhe" was constructed in the IV century, by the king Varaz Bakuri. The denomination consists of two words: narin- minor, kala- fort. There are several other fortresses with the same name in Middle East. The fort is constructed in complicated architectural manner, with number of construction strata; among them Stambolis Koshki (Istanbul Tower) is the most valuable (XVI c.). During the Archeological excavations the ruins of Saint Nikoloz Church were disclosed, on the site of which a new Church was erected. The interior is decorated with frescoes, depicting both biblical scenes and the history of Georgia.
Gremi is situated in Kvareli region, at a distance of 150 kilometres from Tbilisi. Built by Levan, King of Kakhetians in the 16th century, it was an important town of Kakheti region in middle ages. In the XV century Gremi was the residence of Kakheti Royal family. The construction occupies over 50 hectares of space, and is erected on the site, featuring highly contrasting relief. The construction is encircled by e wall with thousands of inbuilt significant facilities, the major of them being Domed Church of Archangel, built in 1565. The frescoes and inscriptions of the church date back to the XVI c. Dwelling tower, belfry, caravanserai, Nakulbakevi, bathhouse, fortress Sameba (Trinity) and other edifices belong to the XVI century as well.
Ananuri (dating from the 17th century) is a Castle on the Aragvi River, about 45 miles from Tbilisi, on the sector of picturesque Georgian Military road. The fortifications enclose, amongst other buildings, two churches with mural paintings and lapidary inscriptions. In the older domed Church of the Virgin are buried some of the Eristavis (dukes) of Aragvi. Church has richly decorated facades, including a carved north entrance. It also contains the remains of a number of frescoes.
Atskuri is situated in Akhaltsikhe region at a distance of 265 km from Tbilisi. During the Middle Ages the main Road, leading across Mtkvari Gorge to the South of Georgia, was defended by number of major fortresses. Atskuri was the most important among them. Atskuri fortress is mentioned in the Chronicles from IX- X centuries, however the fort is supposed to be constructed earlier. During the centuries the fortress witnessed numerous battles, which significantly damaged it. Due to numerous reconstructions Atskuri combines multifarious architectural styles, hence it is very complicated to determine its primeval aspect.
Just on the halfway of the road from Akhaltsikhe to Vardzia medieval cave city, you come across Khertvesi Castle, one of the oldest fortifications in Georgia, but the exact date of its construction is not known. According to a legend, Queen Tamar held a competition to see who could build the best tower. The fortress had a vital role in the defense of the region, no matter which way the enemy invaded, they had to pass this point. Khertvisi fortress consists of a citadel, which is erected on the top of the cliff inaccessible from the northeast, and a surrounding wall. Legend has it that Alexander the Great visited the site during his Eastern Campaign in the 4th century BC.
Gonio is situated in Khelvachauri region, at the Black Sea coastline, near the Chorokhi junction. Until the XII century Gonio fortress was denominated by the name of Absaros in Antic Chronicles. The walls of the fortress are fortified by 14 towers. The fort is built with stone. The walls consist of several construction strata. The first stratum (dating back to the III-IV centuries) is particular for its refined order and sophisticated squared stones. The Second stratum, with towered walls dates back to the VI- VII c.c. and is less refined. The third construction stratum goes back to the period of Turk-Seljuk occupation.
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